VTU ENGINEERING PHYSICS(18PHY12/22) Notes for VTU 1st SEMVTU ENGINEERING PHYSICS All 5 modules can be downloaded by VTU students.Physics and Chemistry Cycle 1st SEM semester notes for the VTU CBCS scheme in pdf format. Additionally, obtain CBCS scheme and other VTU study resources. Based on the CBCS scheme, the model, and past years, VTU notes are provided for the Physics and Chemistry Cycle VTU ENGINEERING PHYSICS(18PHY12/22)1st SEM semesters of the CBCS scheme. Questionnaires for the Physics and Chemistry Cycle VTU

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**Oscillations and Waves****Free Oscillations:** Definition of SHM, derivation of equation for SHM, Mechanical simple harmonic oscillators (mass suspended to spring oscillator), complex notation, and phasor representation of simple harmonic motion. Equation of motion for free oscillations, Natural frequency of oscillations.**Damped and forced oscillations:** Theory of damped oscillations: over damping, critical & under damping, quality factor. Theory of forced oscillations and resonance, Sharpness of resonance. One example of mechanical resonance.**Shock waves:** Mach number, Properties of Shock waves, control volume. Laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. Construction and working of Reddy shock tube, applications of shock waves. Numerical problem

**Elastic properties of materials:****Elasticity:** Concept of elasticity, plasticity, stress, strain, tensile stress, shear stress, compressive stress, strain hardening and strain softening, failure (fracture/fatigue), Hooke’s law, different elastic moduli: Poisson’s ratio, Expression for Young’s modulus (Y), Bulk modulus (K) and Rigidity modulus (n) in terms of and B. Relation between Y, and K, Limits of Poisson’s ratio.**Bending of beams:** Neutral surface and neutral plane, Derivation of expression for bending moment. Bending moment of a beam with a circular and rectangular cross-section. Single cantilever, derivation of expression for Young’s modulus.**Torsion of cylinder:** Expression for a couple per unit twist of a solid cylinder (Derivation), Torsional pendulum-Expression for a period of oscillation. Numerical problems.

**Maxwell’s equations, EM waves, and Optical fibers**

Maxwell’s equations: Fundamentals of vector calculus. Divergence and curl of electric field and magnetic field (static), Gauss’ divergence theorem, and Stokes’ theorem. Description of laws of electrostatics, magnetism, and Faraday’s laws of EMI. Current density & equation of Continuity; displacement current (with derivation) Maxwell’s equations in vacuum.**EM Waves:** The wave equation in differential form in free space (Derivation of the equation using Maxwell’s equations), Plane electromagnetic waves in vacuum, their transverse nature, and the polarization of EM waves (Qualitative).**Optical fibers:** Propagation mechanism, angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Modes of propagation and Types of optical fibers. Attenuation: Causes of attenuation and Mention of expression for attenuation coefficient. Discussion of a block diagram of point-to-point communication. Merits and demerits Numerical problems.

**Quantum Mechanics and Lasers****Quantum mechanics:** Introduction to Quantum mechanics, Wave nature of particles, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and applications (non-confinement of an electron in the nucleus), Schrodinger time-independent wave equation, Significance of Wave function, Normalization, Particle in a box, Energy eigenvalues of a particle in a box and probability densities.**Lasers:** Review of spontaneous and stimulated processes, Einstein’s coefficients (derivation of expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Conditions for laser action. Principle, Construction, and working of CO, and semiconductor Lasers. Application of Lasers in Defense (Laser range finder) and Engineering (Data storage). Numerical problems

**Material science**

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